Features

  • Compression support:
  • TLS support (since server version 1.1.54304).

External data for query processing

You can pass external data alongside with query:

>>> tables = [{
...     'name': 'ext',
...     'structure': [('x', 'Int32'), ('y', 'Array(Int32)')],
...     'data': [
...         {'x': 100, 'y': [2, 4, 6, 8]},
...         {'x': 500, 'y': [1, 3, 5, 7]},
...     ]
... }]
>>> client.execute(
...     'SELECT sum(x) FROM ext', external_tables=tables
... )
[(600,)]

Settings

There are a lot of ClickHouse server settings. Settings can be specified during Client initialization:

# Set max number threads for all queries execution.
>>> settings = {'max_threads': 2}
>>> client = Client('localhost', settings=settings)

Each setting can be overridden in an execute, execute_with_progress and execute_iter statement:

# Set lower priority to query and limit max number threads
# to execute the request.
>>> settings = {'max_threads': 2, 'priority': 10}
>>> client.execute('SHOW TABLES', settings=settings)
[('first_table',)]

Compression

Native protocol supports two types of compression: LZ4 and ZSTD. When compression is enabled compressed data should be hashed using CityHash algorithm. Additional packages should be installed in order by enable compression support, see Installation from PyPI. Enabled client-side compression can save network traffic.

Client with compression support can be constructed as follows:

>>> from clickhouse_driver import Client
>>> client_with_lz4 = Client('localhost', compression=True)
>>> client_with_lz4 = Client('localhost', compression='lz4')
>>> client_with_zstd = Client('localhost', compression='zstd')

CityHash algorithm notes

Unfortunately ClickHouse server comes with built-in old version of CityHash algorithm (1.0.2). That’s why we can’t use original CityHash package. An older version is published separately at PyPI.

Secure connection

>>> from clickhouse_driver import Client
>>>
>>> client = Client('localhost', secure=True)
>>> # Using self-signed certificate.
... self_signed_client = Client(
...     'localhost', secure=True,
...     ca_certs='/etc/clickhouse-server/server.crt'
... )
>>> # Disable verification.
... no_verifyed_client = Client(
...     'localhost', secure=True, verify=False
... )
>>>
>>> # Example of secured client with Let's Encrypt certificate.
... import certifi
>>>
>>> client = Client(
...     'remote-host', secure=True, ca_certs=certifi.where()
... )

Specifying query id

You can manually set query identificator for each query. UUID for example:

>>> from uuid import uuid4
>>>
>>> query_id = str(uuid4())
>>> print(query_id)
bbd7dea3-eb63-4a21-b727-f55b420a7223
>>> client.execute(
...     'SELECT * FROM system.processes', query_id=query_id
... )
[(1, 'default', 'bbd7dea3-eb63-4a21-b727-f55b420a7223', '127.0.0.1', 57664, 'default', 'bbd7dea3-eb63-4a21-b727-f55b420a7223', '127.0.0.1', 57664, 1, 'klebedev', 'klebedev-ThinkPad-T460', 'ClickHouse python-driver', 18, 10, 3, 54406, 0, '', '', 0.004916541, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 'SELECT * FROM system.processes', (25,), ('Query', 'SelectQuery', 'NetworkReceiveElapsedMicroseconds', 'ContextLock', 'RWLockAcquiredReadLocks'), (1, 1, 54, 9, 1), ('use_uncompressed_cache', 'load_balancing', 'max_memory_usage'), ('0', 'random', '10000000000'))]

You can cancel query with specific id by sending another query with the same query id if option replace_running_query is set to 1.

Query results are fetched by the same instance of Client that emitted query.

Retrieving results in columnar form

Columnar form sometimes can be more useful.

>>> client.execute('SELECT arrayJoin(range(3))', columnar=True)
[(0, 1, 2)]

Data types checking on INSERT

Data types check is disabled for performance on INSERT queries. You can turn it on by types_check option:

>>> client.execute(
...     'INSERT INTO test (x) VALUES', [('abc', )],
...     types_check=True
... )
1

Query execution statistics

Client stores statistics about last query execution. It can be obtained by accessing last_query attribute. Statistics is sent from ClickHouse server and calculated on client side. last_query contains info about:

  • profile: rows before limit

    >>> client.execute('SELECT arrayJoin(range(100)) LIMIT 3')
    [(0,), (1,), (2,)]
    >>> client.last_query.profile_info.rows_before_limit
    100
    
  • progress:
    • processed rows;
    • processed bytes;
    • total rows;
    • written rows (new in version 0.1.3);
    • written bytes (new in version 0.1.3);
    >>> client.execute('SELECT max(number) FROM numbers(10)')
    [(9,)]
    >>> client.last_query.progress.rows
    10
    >>> client.last_query.progress.bytes
    80
    >>> client.last_query.progress.total_rows
    10
    
  • elapsed time:

    >>> client.execute('SELECT sleep(1)')
    [(0,)]
    >>> client.last_query.elapsed
    1.0060372352600098
    

Receiving server logs

Query logs can be received from server by using send_logs_level setting:

>>> from logging.config import dictConfig
>>> # Simple logging configuration.
... dictConfig({
...     'version': 1,
...     'disable_existing_loggers': False,
...     'formatters': {
...         'standard': {
...             'format': '%(asctime)s %(levelname)-8s %(name)s: %(message)s'
...         },
...     },
...     'handlers': {
...         'default': {
...             'level': 'INFO',
...             'formatter': 'standard',
...             'class': 'logging.StreamHandler',
...         },
...     },
...     'loggers': {
...         '': {
...             'handlers': ['default'],
...             'level': 'INFO',
...             'propagate': True
...         },
...     }
... })
>>>
>>> settings = {'send_logs_level': 'debug'}
>>> client.execute('SELECT 1', settings=settings)
2018-12-14 10:24:53,873 INFO     clickhouse_driver.log: [ klebedev-ThinkPad-T460 ] [ 25 ] {b328ad33-60e8-4012-b4cc-97f44a7b28f2} <Debug> executeQuery: (from 127.0.0.1:57762) SELECT 1
2018-12-14 10:24:53,874 INFO     clickhouse_driver.log: [ klebedev-ThinkPad-T460 ] [ 25 ] {b328ad33-60e8-4012-b4cc-97f44a7b28f2} <Debug> executeQuery: Query pipeline:
Expression
 Expression
  One

2018-12-14 10:24:53,875 INFO     clickhouse_driver.log: [ klebedev-ThinkPad-T460 ] [ 25 ] {b328ad33-60e8-4012-b4cc-97f44a7b28f2} <Information> executeQuery: Read 1 rows, 1.00 B in 0.004 sec., 262 rows/sec., 262.32 B/sec.
2018-12-14 10:24:53,875 INFO     clickhouse_driver.log: [ klebedev-ThinkPad-T460 ] [ 25 ] {b328ad33-60e8-4012-b4cc-97f44a7b28f2} <Debug> MemoryTracker: Peak memory usage (for query): 40.23 KiB.
[(1,)]

Multiple hosts

New in version 0.1.3.

Additional connection points can be defined by using alt_hosts. If main connection point is unavailable driver will use next one from alt_hosts.

This option is good for ClickHouse cluster with multiple replicas.

>>> from clickhouse_driver import Client
>>> client = Client('host1', alt_hosts='host2:1234,host3,host4:5678')

In example above on every new connection driver will use following sequence of hosts if previous host is unavailable:

  • host1:9000;
  • host2:1234;
  • host3:9000;
  • host4:5678.

All queries within established connection will be sent to the same host.

New in version 0.2.5.

You can specify round_robin parameter alongside with alt_hosts. The host for query execution will be picked with round-robin algorithm.

>>> from clickhouse_driver import Client
>>> client = Client(
...     'host1', alt_hosts='host2:1234,host3', round_robin=True
... )
>>> client.execute('SELECT 1')
[(1,)]
>>> client.execute('SELECT 2')
[(2,)]
>>> client.execute('SELECT 3')
[(3,)]
>>> client.execute('SELECT 4')
[(4,)]

In this example queries will be executed on following hosts:

  • SELECT 1 will be executed on host1;
  • SELECT 2 will be executed on host2;
  • SELECT 3 will be executed on host3;
  • SELECT 4 will be executed on host1.

Connection to each host will be established on the first query to the host. All established connections will be kept until client disconnection or disposal.

Python DB API 2.0

New in version 0.1.3.

This driver is also implements DB API 2.0 specification. It can be useful for various integrations.

Threads may share the module and connections.

Parameters are expected in Python extended format codes, e.g. …WHERE name=%(name)s.

>>> from clickhouse_driver import connect
>>> conn = connect('clickhouse://localhost')
>>> cursor = conn.cursor()
>>>
>>> cursor.execute('SHOW TABLES')
>>> cursor.fetchall()
[('test',)]
>>> cursor.execute('DROP TABLE IF EXISTS test')
>>> cursor.fetchall()
[]
>>> cursor.execute('CREATE TABLE test (x Int32) ENGINE = Memory')
>>> cursor.fetchall()
[]
>>> cursor.executemany(
...     'INSERT INTO test (x) VALUES',
...     [{'x': 100}]
... )
>>> cursor.rowcount
1
>>> cursor.executemany('INSERT INTO test (x) VALUES', [[200]])
>>> cursor.rowcount
1
>>> cursor.execute(
...     'INSERT INTO test (x) '
...     'SELECT * FROM system.numbers LIMIT %(limit)s',
...     {'limit': 3}
... )
>>> cursor.rowcount
0
>>> cursor.execute('SELECT sum(x) FROM test')
>>> cursor.fetchall()
[(303,)]

ClickHouse native protocol is synchronous: when you emit query in connection you must read whole server response before sending next query through this connection. To make DB API thread-safe each cursor should use it’s own connection to the server. In Under the hood Cursor is wrapper around pure Client.

Connection class is just wrapper for handling multiple cursors (clients) and do not initiate actual connections to the ClickHouse server.

There are some non-standard ClickHouse-related Cursor methods for: external data, settings, etc.

For automatic disposal Connection and Cursor instances can be used as context managers:

>>> with connect('clickhouse://localhost') as conn:
>>>     with conn.cursor() as cursor:
>>>        cursor.execute('SHOW TABLES')
>>>        print(cursor.fetchall())

You can use cursor_factory argument to get results as dicts or named tuples (since version 0.2.4):

>>> from clickhouse_driver.dbapi.extras import DictCursor
>>> with connect('clickhouse://localhost') as conn:
>>>     with conn.cursor(cursor_factory=DictCursor) as cursor:
>>>        cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM system.tables')
>>>        print(cursor.fetchall())
>>> from clickhouse_driver.dbapi.extras import NamedTupleCursor
>>> with connect('clickhouse://localhost') as conn:
>>>     with conn.cursor(cursor_factory=NamedTupleCursor) as cursor:
>>>        cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM system.tables')
>>>        print(cursor.fetchall())

NumPy/Pandas support

New in version 0.1.6.

Starting from version 0.1.6 package can SELECT and INSERT columns as NumPy arrays. Additional packages are required for NumPy support.

>>> client = Client('localhost', settings={'use_numpy': True}):
>>> client.execute(
...     'SELECT * FROM system.numbers LIMIT 10000',
...     columnar=True
... )
[array([   0,    1,    2, ..., 9997, 9998, 9999], dtype=uint64)]

Supported types:

  • Float32/64
  • [U]Int8/16/32/64
  • Date/DateTime(‘timezone’)/DateTime64(‘timezone’)
  • String/FixedString(N)
  • LowCardinality(T)
  • Nullable(T)

Direct loading into NumPy arrays increases performance and lowers memory requirements on large amounts of rows.

Direct loading into pandas DataFrame is also supported by using query_dataframe:

>>> client = Client('localhost', settings={'use_numpy': True})
>>> client.query_dataframe('
...     'SELECT number AS x, (number + 100) AS y '
...     'FROM system.numbers LIMIT 10000'
... )
         x      y
0        0    100
1        1    101
2        2    102
3        3    103
4        4    104
...    ...    ...
9995  9995  10095
9996  9996  10096
9997  9997  10097
9998  9998  10098
9999  9999  10099

[10000 rows x 2 columns]

Writing pandas DataFrame is also supported with insert_dataframe:

>>> client = Client('localhost', settings={'use_numpy': True})
>>> client.execute(
...    'CREATE TABLE test (x Int64, y Int64) Engine = Memory'
... )
>>> []
>>> df = client.query_dataframe(
...     'SELECT number AS x, (number + 100) AS y '
...     'FROM system.numbers LIMIT 10000'
... )
>>> client.insert_dataframe('INSERT INTO test VALUES', df)
>>> 10000

Starting from version 0.2.2 nullable columns are also supported. Keep in mind that nullable columns have object dtype. For convenience np.nan and None is supported as NULL values for inserting. But only None is returned after selecting for NULL values.

>>> client = Client('localhost', settings={'use_numpy': True})
>>> client.execute(
...    'CREATE TABLE test ('
...    'a Nullable(Int64),
...    'b Nullable(Float64),
...    'c Nullable(String)'
...    ') Engine = Memory'
... )
>>> []
>>> df = pd.DataFrame({
...     'a': [1, None, None],
...     'b': [1.0, None, np.nan],
...     'c': ['a', None, np.nan],
... }, dtype=object)
>>> client.insert_dataframe('INSERT INTO test VALUES', df)
3
>>> client.query_dataframe('SELECT * FROM test')
      a     b     c
0     1     1     a
1  None  None  None
2  None   NaN  None

It’s important to specify dtype during dataframe creation:

>>> bad_df = pd.DataFrame({
...     'a': [1, None, None],
...     'b': [1.0, None, np.nan],
...     'c': ['a', None, np.nan],
... })
>>> bad_df
     a    b     c
0  1.0  1.0     a
1  NaN  NaN  None
2  NaN  NaN   NaN
>>> good_df = pd.DataFrame({
...     'a': [1, None, None],
...     'b': [1.0, None, np.nan],
...     'c': ['a', None, np.nan],
... }, dtype=object)
>>> good_df
      a     b     c
0     1     1     a
1  None  None  None
2  None   NaN   NaN

As you can see float column b in bad_df has two NaN values. But NaN and None is not the same for float point numbers. NaN is float('nan') where None is representing NULL.

Automatic disposal

New in version 0.2.2.

Each Client instance can be used as a context manager:

>>> with Client('localhost') as client:
>>>     client.execute('SELECT 1')

Upon exit, any established connection to the ClickHouse server will be closed automatically.